Stephen W. Smith, MD

Dr. Stephen W. Smith is a faculty physician in the Emergency Medicine Residency at Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC) in Minneapolis, MN, and Professor of Emergency Medicine at the University of Minnesota.

Clinical Expertise

Emergency Medicine, with an emphasis on Emergency Cardiac Care, especially with regard to Chest Pain, Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Troponin interpretation; Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate toxicity, addiction, and withdrawal.


  • American Board of Emergency Medicine


  • Professor of Emergency Medicine, University of MN
  • Blog ranked 6th world wide among Free Open Access Emergency Medicine/Critical Care sites (FOAMed)

Professional Affiliations

  • American College of Emergency Physicians
  • Society for Academic Emergency Medicine


  • Sandoval Y. Smith SW. Apple FS. Present and Future of Cardiac Troponin in Clinical Practice: A Paradigm Shift to High Sensitivity Assays. American Journal of Medicine. April 2016. Online January 2016
  • Meyers HP. Limkakeng AT. Jaffa EJ. Patel A. Theiling BJ. Rezaie SR. Stewart T. Zhuang C. Pera VK. Smith SWValidation of the Modified Sgarbossa Rule for Diagnosis of STEMI in the Presence of Left Bundle Branch Block. American Heart Journal 170(6):1255-1264; December 2015.
  • Shah ASV. Anand A. Sandoval Y. Lee KK. Smith SW. Adamson PD. Chapman AR. Langdon T. Sandeman D. Vaswani A. Strachan FE. Ferry A. Stirzaker AG. Reid A. Gray AJ. Collinson PO. McAllister DA. Apple FS. Newby DE. Mills NL. For the High-STEACS Investigators. High-sensitivitiy cardiac troponin I at presentation in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome: a cohort study. The Lancet 386 (10012), 2481-2488; December 19, 2015.
  • Smith SW. Dodd KW. Dvorak D. Henry TD. Pearce LA. Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Presence of Left Bundle Branch Block using the ST Elevation to S-Wave Ratio in a Modified Sgarbossa Rule.Annals of Emergency Medicine 2012; 60(12):766-776.
  • Smith SW. Khalil A. Henry TD. Rosas M. Chang RJ. Heller K. Scharrer E. Ghorashi M. Pearce LA. Electrocardiographic Differentiation of Early Repolarization From Subtle Anterior ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2012; 60(1):45-56.
  • Zvosec DL. Smith SW. McCutcheon R. et al. Adverse Events, Including Death, Associated with the Use of 1,4-butanediol. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 344(2):87-94.


"I enjoy biking, skiing, reading, and whitewater kayaking."

Medical School

Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA


Emergency Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA


Emergency Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA


H. Pendell Meyers, MD

Co-editor, sorcerer's apprentice, etc. Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine at Carolinas Medical Center. 

  • Meyers HP. Limkakeng AT. Jaffa EJ. Patel A. Theiling BJ. Rezaie SR. Stewart T. Zhuang C. Pera VK. Smith SW. Validation of the modified Sgarbossa criteria for acute coronary occlusion in the setting of left bundle branch block: a retrospective case-control study. Am Heart J 2015;170;1255-1264.
  • Meyers HP. Jaffa EJ, Smith SW, Drake W, Limkakeng AT. Evaluation of T-wave morphology in patients with left bundle branch block and suspected acute coronary syndrome. J Emerg Med. 2016 Sep;51(3):229-37.
  • Meyers HP, Smith SW. Dynamic T-wave inversions in the setting of left bundle branch block. Am J Emerg Med. 2016;35;938e5-938e7.
  • Newman DH, Ackerman B, Kraushar ML, Lederhandler MH, Masri A, Starikov A, Tsao DT, Meyers HP, Shah KH. Quantifying patient-physician communication and perceptions of risk during admissions for possible acute coronary syndromes. Ann Emerg Med 2015 Jul;66(1):13-8. 

Medical School

Duke University, Durham, NC, USA


Emergency Medicine, Stony Brook University Hospital, Long Island, NY, USA


Ken Grauer, MD

Professor Emeritus in Family Medicine
Dept. Community Health & Fam Med
College of Medicine, Univ. of Florida

Medical School — University of Lausanne, Switzerland (1970-73); SUNY @ Syracuse, 1973-75 (MD Degree).

Residency — Family Medicine at St. Margaret's, Pittsburgh, PA, 1975-78.

Career: Dr. Grauer was an Emergency Physician at Broward General from 1978-80 in Ft. Lauderdale, Fl. He served as full-time core Faculty at the Family Medicine Residency Program at the University of Florida from 1980-2010. He was Assistant Director of the Residency Program from 1983-2009. During his career he has been recognized by numerous local, state and national teaching awards.

ACLS: Served as an ACLS instructor from 1978-2012. He was Affiliate ACLS Faculty for Florida from 1983-1998 — and former National ACLS Affiliate Faculty, having participated and/or directed well over 100 Provider or Instructor Courses during his career.

Publications/Presentations: Principal author of more than 15 books, plus numerous study aids on ECG/Arrhythmia Interpretation/ACLS — principal author of over 75 cardiology-related articles for family physicians — presenter at over 350 statewide and national presentations (with numerous ECG workshops) — Formed KG/EKG Press (publishing on ECGs/Arrhythmias) in 1998; developed ECG Competency Assessment for Family Medicine in 2012-2021.

ECG Blog (since 2010): http://ecg-interpretation.blogspot.com

Language Proficiency: Comfortably conversant in French & Spanish; conversational in German, Italian, Portuguese, Hebrew — beginning Russian.

Personal: Married; an avid ballroom dancer with his wife (pre-Covid) — enjoys playing piano/keyboard, horseback riding — & a proud grandfather of 2 super grandchildren!


Jesse McLaren, MD

Assistant Professor 
Department of Family & Community Medicine
University of Toronto.

Medical School: 
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

McGill University, Montreal, Canada

ECG Expertise:
Writes monthly ECG Cases blog since 2019, and an associate editor of Dr. Smith's ECG blog since 2022. Tweets @ECGcases

McLaren JTT, Meyers HP, Smith SW, Chartier LB. From STEMI to Occlusion MI: paradigm shift and ED quality improvement. CJEM 2022 APr;24(3):250-255

McLaren JTT, Taher AK, Chartier LB. Flattening the other curve: reducing emergency department STEMI delays during the COVID-19 pandemic. Am J Emerg Med 2021 Nov;49:367-372

McLaren JTT, Taher AK, Kapoor M, Yi SL, Chartier LB. Sharing and Teaching Electrocardiograms to Minimize Infarction (STEMI): reducing diagnostic time for acute coronary occlusion in the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med 2021 Oct;48:18-32

McLaren JTT, Kapoor M, Yi SL, Chartier LB. Using ECG-to-activation time to assess emergency physicians' diagnostic time for acute coronary occlusion. J Emerg Med 2021 Jan;60(1):25-34

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